Types of fabric and their usage
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Author : Coopertailor
Update time : 2021-10-19 19:43:47
Textile fibers are divided into natural fibers and chemical fibers.
Natural fibers are divided into plant fibers, animal fibers and mineral fibers.
Chemical fiber is divided into man-made fiber or regenerated fiber (regenerated cellulose fiber such as viscose fiber, cupra fiber, acetate fiber, protein fiber such as soybean fiber, etc., man-made special organic compound fiber such as chitin fiber, man-made inorganic fiber such as glass fiber ), synthetic fibers (fibers extracted from natural small molecular compounds through the artificial synthesis of organic polymers and then dissolved or melted into a liquid) are divided into polyester fibers (polyester), polyamide fibers (nylon), and poly Acrylonitrile fiber (acrylic).
Chemical fiber classification
Chemical fibers refer to fibers made from natural or synthetic polymers through chemical methods and mechanical processing.
1. According to the source of polymer, it is divided into regenerated fiber and synthetic fiber. The fiber is made from natural polymer as raw material and recycled through chemical methods and mechanical processing, and is basically the same as the original polymer in terms of chemical composition. Such as viscose fiber, cupra fiber, acetate fiber, etc., are made of cellulose-containing substances in nature, such as cotton linters, wood, bagasse, reeds and other cellulose to make drip fibers.
Regenerated fibers include regenerated cellulose fibers and regenerated protein fibers. Synthetic fiber is made of low-molecular compound (monomer) as raw material through artificial synthesis and mechanical processing.
2. Divided into polyester fibers according to their internal composition.
The main varieties of this type of fibers are polyethylene terephthalate fibers, with the trade name polyester.
Polyamide fiber, a type of synthetic fiber in which the main chain of the molecule is connected by amide bonds, the trade name is nylon.
The trade name of polyacrylonitrile fiber is acrylic fiber.
The trade name of polyvinyl formal fiber is vinylon.
The trade name of polypropylene fiber is polypropylene.
The trade name of polyvinyl chloride fiber is chlorinated fiber.
Among the regenerated fibers, viscose, cupra, and acetate fibers are all cellulose fibers, collectively referred to as regenerated cellulose fibers.
3. According to the structure and morphology of chemical fibers, it can be divided into two categories: filament and short fiber.
According to the cross-sectional shape and structure of chemical fibers, they are divided into special-shaped fibers and composite fibers.
According to the fiber thickness, it can be divided into coarse special, fine special, veryfine fiber and so on.
Filament can be divided into monofilament, multifilament and textured yarn.
There is only one fiber in the monofilament, and the multifilament includes a variety of monofilaments, and most of the filaments used for weaving are multifilaments.
Chemical fibers that have undergone texturing are called textured yarns or stretch yarns. Due to different processing methods, textured yarns are divided into two types: twisting and non-twisting.
The twisted textured yarn is a regular spiral and is mainly processed by false twisting. The non-twisted textured yarn has wave, loop and various irregular crimp shapes.
Common textured yarns such as high-elastic nylon yarn, polypropylene elastic yarn, low-elastic polyester yarn, etc.
Short fibers are divided into equal length fibers and unequal length fibers.
Generally, cotton fibers are of equal length, and some wool-type chemical fibers are processed into unequal lengths, so that the processed products have a wool-like style.
Fibers with two or more components or components on the cross section of chemical fibers are called composite fibers.
Two-component composite fibers are commonly used.
The two-component side-by-side composite fiber is called side-by-side or double-sided composite fiber. This fiber has good crimping properties.
The core-sheath composite fiber can produce various effects, such as improving dyeability, Wear resistance and rubber adhesion.
The two components are dispersed in the cross section called the island-in-the-sea composite fiber.
Non-circular cross-section fibers processed with non-circular spinnerets are called special-shaped fibers.
Ultra-fine fibers are processed by conventional spinning improvement methods or special spinning. Most of them are made of artificial suede, and fine-denier fibers are mostly used to make silk-like fabrics.
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